Polarity - the positive and negative parts of a signal. Within a speaker, you want everything to move properly together. (in/out +/-)
Phase - the time relationship of a sound to a known time reference. When two identical waves are in phase that sound will have twice the amplitude. When out of phase, the audio has a delay that can be clearly noticed.
3-1 Rule - When you use 2 microphones to record, you'll mostly get the best results when you place the second mic three times the distance of the first.
Dither - Adds white noise to an audio recording to reduce distortion of quieter amplitudes.
High Pass Filter - A filter that ducks down all lower frequencies to boost the highs.
Microphone Pad - A switch on a microphone that decreases the gain of the input, usually by 10 dB.
Latency - a small period of delay between the input and output of an audio signal. When recording, this distorts the timing of any audio track you are recording. In Pro Tools, you can change the latency by going into the system preferences and changing the buffer size.
Ways to Record Drums - this link will send you to an interesting video of different ways to record a drum set.
I hope this information is useful to any beginner audio technicians/ engineers, and happy recording!